Lithuanian Grand Dukes from the Galicia-Volhynia Treaty.

by Rebecca Lucas (ffride wlffsdotter)

© 2014; all rights reserved
last updated 10th May 2014


In 1219, twenty Lithuanian dukes, often described as regional or grand dukes (Kilimas, 1969), and one woman identified as a duke's wife, signed a treaty with Kingdom of Galicia-Volhynia. Along with being considered a landmark in the establishment of the Lithuanian proto-state, it gives us a glimpse into a handful of "Lithuanian pagan name[s]" (Girvilas, 1978), albeit in Old Church Slavonic, recorded in the Galician-Volhynian Chronicle.

The Chronicle itself only survives in the 15th century Hypatian Codex, and I have extracted the names from the second volume of Полное собрание русских летописей [Polnoe Sobranīe Russkīkh Letopiseĭ], or PSRL, which does not appear to have normalised the text:

Археографическая комиссия, 1908. Полное собрание русских летописей. Томъ второй. Ипатьевская летопись (Санктпетербургъ)
Archaeographical Commission, 1908. Complete Colection of Russian Chronicles. Second Volume. Ipatiev Chronicle (St. Petersburg)

The names have been sorted in alphabetical order, by modern Lithuanian form (Butkevičienė and Gricius, 2003). Transliterations follow the Library of Congress system for Belarusian (Library of Congress, 2012) and Church Slavic (Library of Congress, 2011). Where alternate forms are provided, they come from the in-text footnotes of PSRL. In the few cases where these names are found in Wickenden's Dictionary of Period Russian Names, I have linked to his online edition, and listed his header form.


Modern Lithuanian Name(s) from Codex Transliteration Wickenden reference Notes
Bikšys Бикши Bīkshī   Duke of Deltuva.
Butautas Боутовить/Боутовит Boutovīt'/Boutovīt
Buteikis Поукѣикъ/Поукыикь Poukěīk"/Poukyīk'   Duke of Deltuva.
Daujotas Давъѧтъ/Довьять Dav"ęt"/Dov'iat'   Brother of Vilikaila,
in the 'patronymic' form he is Довъꙗловъ/Dov"ialov" or Довьяловь/Dov'ialov'. If the character 'ꙗ' is not displaying, it is an iotated a.
Dausprungas Довъспроункъ/Довьспроункь Dov"sprounk"/Dov'sprounk' Dovstruik Brother of Mindaugas.
Moroshkin p. 76 lists Довъструйкъ [Dov"struĭk"]
Erdvilas Ерьдивилъ Er'dīvīl"   Duke of Samogitia.
Gedvilas Едивила/Едивала Edīvīla/Edīvala
Juodikis Юдьки/Юдькы Iud'kī/Iud'ky   Duke of Deltuva.
Kintibutas Кинтибоуть/Кинтибоуд Kīntībout'/Kīntīboud
Kitenis Китении Kītenīī
Ligeikis Ликиикъ/Ликѣикь Līkīīk"/Līkěīk" Likeik Moroshkin p. 111 lists Ликѣйкъ [Līkěĭk"]
Mindaugas Мидогъ Mīdoh"   Brother of Dausprungas.
Plikienė Пликосова Plīkosova   Wife of Plikys (*Пликос/*Plīkos).
Not a true personal name, but a 'possessive' byname.
Sprudeikis Спроудѣика/Съпроудѣика Sprouděīka/S"prouděīka
Vilikaila Виликаилъ Vīlīkaīl" Velikail Brother of Daujotas
Moroshkin p. 36 lists Великайлъ [Velīkaĭl"]
Vismantas Вишимоут/Вишимоуть Vīshīmout/Vīshīmout'
Velžys Вишлии/Вишли Vīshlīī/Vīshlī   Son of Vyžeikis.
Vembutas Вонибоут/Вънибоут Vonībout/V"nībout
Vykintas Вꙑкꙑнтъ/Выкнть Vykynt"/Vykīnt'   Duke of Samogitia.
If the character ꙑ does not appear, it is the ъ-і ligature yery.
Vyžeikis Вижѣикъ/Вижеивь Vīzhěīk"/Vīzheīv'
Živinbudas Живинъбоудъ/Живиньбоуд Zhīvīn"boud"/Zhīvīn'boud   Moroshkin p. 84 lists Живинбундъ [Zhīvīnbund"]